Arnold Sommerfeld was born on December 05, 1868 in Königsberg, German, is Physicist. Arnold Sommerfeld was a renowned German physicist who did pioneering work in the field of quantum physics. His work related to the X-ray wave theory and introduction of the azimuthal and spin quantum numbers to describe the unique quantum state of an atom were major breakthroughs in the field of atomic physics. As a child Sommerfeld was interested more in literature and history and it was unclear as to what course he should pursue further. Realization finally dawned onto him when he interacted with the great mathematical minds like David Hilbert, Adolf Hurwitz, and Ferdinand von Lindemann and he decided to pursue a career in exact sciences. This mathematician also completed a one year term in the defence forces and unlike his other contemporaries who disliked the military servitude, Sommerfeld engaged in voluntary military service time and again for the next eight years. His interaction with mathematician Felix Klein marked the beginning of a life-long professional collaboration and Klein was a major influence in shaping the course of Arnold’s career. This genius mind is credited with serving as the doctoral advisor for the most number of Nobel laureates in his teaching career spanning over three decades. Read on to know more about Sommerfeld’s contribution to the world of quantum physics

** Arnold Sommerfeld is a member of Scientists**

Who is it? | Physicist |

Birth Day | December 05, 1868 |

Birth Place | Königsberg, German |

Age | 151 YEARS OLD |

Died On | 26 April 1951(1951-04-26) (aged 82)\nMunich, West Germany |

Birth Sign | Capricorn |

Residence | Germany |

Alma mater | University of Königsberg |

Known for | Drude–Sommerfeld model Fine-structure constant Sommerfeld identity Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement Sommerfeld–Wilson quantization Sommerfeld–Bohr theory Sommerfeld's approximation Sommerfeld–Watson representation |

Awards | Matteucci Medal (1924) Max-Planck Medal (1931) Lorentz Medal (1939) Oersted Medal (1949) Fellow of the Royal Society |

Fields | Physics |

Institutions | University of Göttingen Technische Universität Clausthal University of Aachen University of Munich |

Thesis | The arbitrary functions in mathematical physics (1891) |

Doctoral advisor | Ferdinand von Lindemann |

Doctoral students | Werner Heisenberg Wolfgang Pauli Peter Debye Paul Sophus Epstein Hans Bethe Ernst Guillemin Karl Bechert Paul Peter Ewald Herbert Fröhlich Erwin Fues Helmut Hönl Ludwig Hopf Walther Kossel Adolf Kratzer Alfred Landé Otto Laporte Wilhelm Lenz Rudolf Peierls Walter Rogowski Rudolf Seeliger Heinrich Welker Gregor Wentzel |

Other notable students | Herbert Kroemer Linus Pauling Walter Heitler Werner Romberg |

Influenced | John Bardeen Léon Brillouin Karl Herzfeld |

1891

Sommerfeld studied mathematics and physical sciences at the Albertina University of his native city, Königsberg, East Prussia. His dissertation advisor was the Mathematician Ferdinand von Lindemann, and he also benefited from classes with mathematicians Adolf Hurwitz and David Hilbert and Physicist Emil Wiechert. His participation in the student fraternity Deutsche Burschenschaft resulted in a fencing scar on his face. He received his Ph.D. on 24 October 1891 (age 22).

1892

After receiving his doctorate, Sommerfeld remained at Königsberg to work on his teaching diploma. He passed the national exam in 1892 and then began a year of military Service, which was done with the reserve regiment in Königsberg. He completed his obligatory military Service in September 1893, and for the next eight years continued voluntary eight-week military Service. With his turned up moustache, his physical build, his Prussian bearing, and the fencing scar on his face, he gave the impression of being a colonel in the hussars.

1893

In October 1893, Sommerfeld went to the University of Göttingen, which was the center of mathematics in Germany. There, he became assistant to Theodor Liebisch, at the Mineralogical Institute, through a fortunate personal contact – Liebisch had been a professor at the University of Königsberg and a friend of the Sommerfeld family.

1894

In September 1894, Sommerfeld became Felix Klein's assistant, which included taking comprehensive notes during Klein's lectures and writing them up for the Mathematics Reading Room, as well as managing the reading room. Sommerfeld's Habilitationsschrift was completed under Klein, in 1895, which allowed Sommerfeld to become a Privatdozent at Göttingen. As a Privatdozent, Sommerfeld lectured on a wide range of mathematical and mathematical physics topics. His lectures on partial differential equations were first offered at Göttingen, and they evolved over his teaching career to become Volume VI of his textbook series *Lectures on Theoretical Physics*, under the title *Partial Differential Equations in Physics*.

1895

Lectures by Klein in 1895 and 1896 on rotating bodies led Klein and Sommerfeld to write a four-volume text *Die Theorie des Kreisels* – a 13-year collaboration, 1897–1910. The first two volumes were on theory, and the latter two were on applications in geophysics, astronomy, and Technology. The association Sommerfeld had with Klein influenced Sommerfeld's turn of mind to be applied mathematics and in the art of lecturing.

1897

While at Göttingen, Sommerfeld met Johanna Höpfner, daughter of Ernst Höpfner, curator at Göttingen. In October, 1897 Sommerfeld began the appointment to the Chair of Mathematics at the Bergakademie in Clausthal-Zellerfeld; he was successor to Wilhelm Wien. This appointment provided enough income to eventually marry Johanna.

1898

At Klein's request, Sommerfeld took on the position of Editor of Volume V of *Enzyklopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften*; it was a major undertaking which lasted from 1898 to 1926.

1900

Sommerfeld was a great theoretician, and besides his invaluable contributions to the quantum theory, he worked in other fields of physics, such as the classical theory of electromagnetism. For Example, he proposed a solution to the Problem of a radiating hertzian dipole over a conducting earth, which over the years led to many applications. His Sommerfeld identity and Sommerfeld integrals are still to the present day the most Common way to solve this kind of Problem. Also, as a mark of the prowess of Sommerfeld's school of theoretical physics and the rise of theoretical physics in the early 1900s, as of 1928, nearly one-third of the ordinarius professors of theoretical physics in the German-speaking world were students of Sommerfeld.

1906

From 1906 Sommerfeld established himself as ordinarius professor of physics and Director of the new Theoretical Physics Institute at the University of Munich. He was selected for these positions by Wilhelm Röntgen, Director of the Physics Institute at Munich, which was looked upon by Sommerfeld as being called to a "privileged sphere of action."

1914

While at Munich, Sommerfeld came in contact with the special theory of relativity by Albert Einstein, which was not yet widely accepted at that time. His mathematical contributions to the theory helped its acceptance by the skeptics. In 1914 he worked with Léon Brillouin on the propagation of electromagnetic waves in dispersive media. He became one of the founders of quantum mechanics; some of his contributions included co-discovery of the Sommerfeld–Wilson quantization rules (1915), a generalization of Bohr's atomic model, introduction of the Sommerfeld fine-structure constant (1916), co-discovery with Walther Kossel of the Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement law (1919), and publishing *Atombau und Spektrallinien* (1919), which became the "bible" of atomic theory for the new generation of physicists who developed atomic and quantum physics.

1918

In 1918, Sommerfeld succeeded Einstein as chair of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG). One of his accomplishments was the founding of a new journal. The scientific papers published in DPG journals became so voluminous, a committee of the DPG, in 1919, recommended the establishment of *Zeitschrift für Physik* for publication of original research articles, which commenced in 1920. Since any reputable scientist could have their article published without refereeing, time between submission and publication was very rapid – as fast as two weeks time. This greatly stimulated the scientific theoretical developments, especially that of quantum mechanics in Germany at that time, as this journal was the preferred publication vehicle for the new generation of quantum theorists with avant-garde views.

1922

In the winter semester of 1922/1923, Sommerfeld gave the Carl Schurz Memorial Professor of Physics lectures at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

1927

In 1927 Sommerfeld applied Fermi–Dirac statistics to the Drude model of electrons in metals – a model put forth by Paul Drude. The new theory solved many of the problems predicting thermal properties the original model had and became known as the Drude–Sommerfeld model.

1928

In 1928/1929, Sommerfeld traveled around the world with major stops in India, China, Japan, and the United States.

1935

On 1 April 1935 Sommerfeld achieved emeritus status, however, he stayed on as his own temporary replacement during the selection process for his successor, which took until 1 December 1939. The process was lengthy due to academic and political differences between the Munich Faculty's selection and that of both the Reichserziehungsministerium (REM; Reich Education Ministry) and the supporters of Deutsche Physik, which was anti-Semitic and had a bias against theoretical physics, especially including quantum mechanics. The appointment of Wilhelm Müller – who was not a theoretical Physicist, had not published in a physics journal, and was not a member of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft – as a replacement for Sommerfeld, was considered such a travesty and detrimental to educating a new generation of physicists that both Ludwig Prandtl, Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Strömungsforschung (Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research), and Carl Ramsauer, Director of the research division of the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (General Electric Company) and President of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, made reference to this in their correspondence to officials in the Reich. In an attachment to Prandtl's 28 April 1941 letter to Reich Marshal Hermann Göring, Prandtl referred to the appointment as "sabotage" of necessary theoretical physics instruction. In an attachment to Ramsauer's 20 January 1942 letter to Reich Minister Bernhard Rust, Ramsauer concluded that the appointment amounted to the "destruction of the Munich theoretical physics tradition".

1942

Over his 32 years of teaching at Munich, Sommerfeld taught general and specialized courses, as well as holding seminars and colloquia. The general courses were on mechanics, mechanics of deformable bodies, electrodynamics, optics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and partial differential equations in physics. They were held four hours per week, 13 weeks in the winter and 11 weeks in the summer, and were for students who had taken experimental physics courses from Röntgen and later by Wilhelm Wien. There was also a two-hour weekly presentation for the discussion of problems. The specialized courses were of topical interest and based on Sommerfeld's research interests; material from these courses appeared later in the scientific literature publications of Sommerfeld. The objective of these special lectures was to grapple with current issues in theoretical physics and for Sommerfeld and the students to garner a systematic comprehension of the issue, independent of whether or not they were successful in solving the Problem posed by the current issue. For the seminar and colloquium periods, students were assigned papers from the current literature and they then prepared an oral presentation. From 1942 to 1951, Sommerfeld worked on putting his lecture notes in order for publication. They were published as the six-volume *Lectures on Theoretical Physics*.

1951

Sommerfeld died in 1951 in Munich from injuries after a traffic accident while walking with his grandchildren.

2004

In 2004, the center for theoretical physics at the University of Munich was named after him.

2019

As for Sommerfeld’s once patriotic views, he wrote to Einstein shortly after Hitler took power: "I can assure you that the misuse of the word ‘national’ by our rulers has thoroughly broken me of the habit of national feelings that was so pronounced in my case. I would now be willing to see Germany disappear as a power and merge into a pacified Europe."

Scientists

Scientists

Scientists

Scientists

Scientists

Scientists

Scientists

Scientists

Scientists

Scientists